Last Updated:
June 21, 2017

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Articles related to the physics of photomedicine.

FREE Educational PBM Site is proud to announce its cooperation with the new free educational site,! This site offers ten basic educational documents on PBM as on Open Access option. Where applicable, more complex explanations are additionally linked to one of the more read more
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The role of coherence in laser phototherapy

The role of coherence in laser phototherapy By Tomas Hode, PhD Introduction The importance of coherence and laser speckles in LPT has been discussed over the last 30 years. Coherence [1] is often defined as a property of wave-like states read more
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The magic 4 J/cm²

The magic 4 J/cm² By Jan Tunér From early publications on the subject of PBM and wound healing, the dose of 4 J/cm² appeared to be close to an optimum. While still rather valid, this belief is also an intellectual trap read more
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Tunér’s Travel Tips!

Erbium, yttrium, holmium and several other – a visit to the village of Ytterby By Jan Tunér Laser users are familiar with the many components from the periodic elements to be found in their laser diodes. Erbium lasers are familiar, read more
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What is a “dose” – really?

What is a “dose” – really? By Jan Tunér An alarming feature in the laser phototherapy literature is the frequent ignorance about the meaning of the term ”dose”. As a reviewer, I see this misunderstanding only too frequently and in read more
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Revisiting the Holy Grail…

An open letter to the laser therapy community. Peter A Jenkins, MBA First Posted April 28, 2009 […and reprised here just for fun!]   Many of you, over the years, will have read my various articles and posts in which read more
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The illusive “Class 4” lasers…

The illusive “Class 4” lasers A comment on:  Ottaviani G, Gobbo M, Sturnega M, Martinelli V, Mano M, Zanconati F, Bussani R, Perinetti G, Long C S, Di Lenarda R, Giacca M, Biasotto M, Zacchigna S. Effect of Class IV read more
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More Class IV myths…

“A Class 3B will take all day to do what a Class IV can do in minutes…” Peter A. Jenkins, MBA This claim, used to promote the supposed benefits of a high-power Class IV laser for LPT, is based on read more
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The “Class IV” myths…

The “Class IV” myths By Jan Tunér Several manufacturers offer lasers in the Class 4 (IV) group of lasers; that is lasers emitting more than 500 mW. This classification is a bit problematic, because it is possible to start a read more
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A Brief Word on Reciprocity

A Brief Word on Reciprocity Peter A. Jenkins, MBA The 3rd Law of Photobiology (a.k.a. the Reciprocity Rule and the Bunsen-Roscoe Law) states that “the effects of irradiation will be independent of irradiance and exposure time as long as radiant read more
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