Last Updated:
June 21, 2017

Basic Sciences
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Articles about the basic sciences underpinning photomedicine.

FREE Educational PBM Site is proud to announce its cooperation with the new free educational site,! This site offers ten basic educational documents on PBM as on Open Access option. Where applicable, more complex explanations are additionally linked to one of the more read more
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PBM – PhotoBioModulation – watch out for it!

PBM – PhotoBioModulation – watch out for it! By Jan Tunér Ever since the birth of “low level lasers” there has been no consensus about the vocabulary in this kind of medical intervention. MeSH terms of the National Library of read more
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Evidence by excellence, or by evidence?

Evidence by excellence or by evidence? By Jan Tunér In the “old days” the medical treatment recommendations were based upon opinions from leading medical professionals. These recommendations were generally based upon experience, which is not at all too bad, but read more
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The role of coherence in laser phototherapy

The role of coherence in laser phototherapy By Tomas Hode, PhD Introduction The importance of coherence and laser speckles in LPT has been discussed over the last 30 years. Coherence [1] is often defined as a property of wave-like states read more
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PBM/LLLT in mainstream medicine

PBM/LLLT in mainstream medicine By Jan Tunér The acceptance of PBM is progressing but at a slow rate. This is partly due to lack of knowledge about the optimal parameters and quality problems in the PBM literature. Still, things are read more
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The magic 4 J/cm²

The magic 4 J/cm² By Jan Tunér From early publications on the subject of PBM and wound healing, the dose of 4 J/cm² appeared to be close to an optimum. While still rather valid, this belief is also an intellectual trap read more
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Autoimmunity and PBM

Autoimmunity and PBM By Jan Tunér Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues. Any disease that results from such an aberrant immune response is termed an autoimmune disease. Prominent examples read more
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Is there a biostimulating effect of blue light?

Is there a biostimulating effect of blue light? By Jan Tunér In recent years, lasers and LEDs in the blue part of the spectrum have been introduced on the market. It is known that blue light has a bactericidal effect read more
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Tunér’s Travel Tips!

Erbium, yttrium, holmium and several other – a visit to the village of Ytterby By Jan Tunér Laser users are familiar with the many components from the periodic elements to be found in their laser diodes. Erbium lasers are familiar, read more
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Scientific references – a Babylonian confusion

Scientific references – a Babylonian confusion By Jan Tunér Every scientific paper has references to other scientific papers. This is common knowledge and the tradition is completely uncontroversial. In a previous LaserAnnals article (References – science or decorations?) the quality read more
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