Recommended reading for those planning to make a LLLT study

Check this first:


WALT standards for conduct of randomized controlled trials:


WALT standards for conduct of systematic reviews and meta analyses.


WALT dosage recommendations.



Then consider this:

Requirements for a proper LLLT study


Technical parameters

  • Name of instrument (producer), production year.
  • Laser type and wavelength (e.g. 632.8 nm, HeNe laser)
  • Laser beam characteristics (polarized, divergent, collimated)
  • Number of laser sources (source distribution spatially)
  • Beam delivery system (fibre optics, hand held probe, scanner)
  • Pulsed or continuous emission (pulse repetition rate, type of pulsing and duty cycle)
  • Output power (peak power / average power / energy per pulse)
  • Power density (mW/cm²) at probe aperture (aperture size)
  • Calibration of the instrument (external, internal, meter type)


Treatment parameters

  • Treatment area (size and number of sites and/or number of treated points)
  • Dose: Energy density (described in detail) in J/cm2 and/or J/point.
  • Total dose per treatment session and total dose for the entire course of treatment.
  • Intensity: Power density (at the treated surface) in mW/cm²
  • Rationale for chosen dosage
  • Treatment method (contact, pressure, distance illumination)
  • Treatment distance (spot size), type of movement, scanning
  • Sites of treatment (leg, knee, internal via fiber etc.)
  • Intended tissue target (synovia, cartilage, ganglion etc) and its approximate distance from the skin surface.
  • Number of treatment sessions (is it the same for all patients?)
  • Frequency of treatment sessions (e.g. 2 per week for 3 weeks, then 1 per week)